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If you come from a Java enterprise or a. So, if you have the time, it is a pretty good idea to learn Backbone first to get more familiar with how MVC works, since as you can see from the examples above MVC frameworks are all pretty similar. AngularJS has always been pushing the envelop on browser support.

In addition, it thought about mobile support before other frameworks, along with ECMAScript 6 and web components. However, in reality, people will want to see the list and details on the same page, they might want the list on a left-hand side of the menu. When they click an item they would expect to be able to drill into its details.

Developing a Edge [Book]

The native Angular router does not have such a feature. Angular is talking about fixing this in newer versions, but at the moment directives can make Angular rather tough for some developers. Ember has done pretty well with their vision, such as seeing object. Instead, their components are trying to be simple UI widgets or components, so the API is much cleaner and easier to understand. They use getters and setters, and you need to remember them to access properties on your objects.

This can be a pain because you can forget and actually just. Compared to other frameworks, Backbone gives you a lot more control over performance, particularly in mobile scenarios. A large reason for that would be the lack of 2-way data binding, which is a key feature a lot of people really liked about Angular and Ember. As Backbone does not have much of an opinion, architecture is unclear at times, which can make it challenging to get up to speed on some things.

As far as Angular and Ember go, it would be a reasonable choice to pick either. Backbone may sound less preferred, though this actually has to do with the generations of what has happened in building rich JavaScript applications. At first, there was plain old JavaScript, in which back in the day no one wanted to write it when it was just that due to all of the cross-browser issues.

Then jQuery came along, and since it can be summarized to be a DOM manipulation library, it removed the cross-browser issues. The third generation would be Backbone and Knockout. Promises make things better, but you can still quickly break the back button by making a few AJAX calls with your jQuery code. As you build more of your app in JavaScript, you eventually hit the edge of jQuery.

Backbone helped make code cleaner, and there were a lot of micro-frameworks competing against it, but Backbone won. In addition, people really liked the 2-way data-binding in Knockout. Finally, the next evolution of frameworks came along, which is Angular and Ember. They gathered all the ideas of what people liked and put together a more inclusive framework as opposed to a library. However, as mentioned before, there are exceptions to that, and the most common being performance.

The behavior of fetch can be customized by using the available set options. For example, to fetch a collection, getting an "add" event for every new model, and a "change" event for every changed existing model, without removing anything: collection. Note that fetch should not be used to populate collections on page load — all models needed at load time should already be bootstrapped in to place.

Equivalent to instantiating a model with a hash of attributes, saving the model to the server, and adding the model to the set after being successfully created. Returns the new model. If client-side validation failed, the model will be unsaved, with validation errors. In order for this to work, you should set the model property of the collection. The create method can accept either an attributes hash and options to be passed down during model instantiation or an existing, unsaved model object.

Creating a model will cause an immediate "add" event to be triggered on the collection, a "request" event as the new model is sent to the server, as well as a "sync" event, once the server has responded with the successful creation of the model. Collection and any collections which extend it. This can be used to add generic methods e. Web applications often provide linkable, bookmarkable, shareable URLs for important locations in the app. Router provides methods for routing client-side pages, and connecting them to actions and events. For browsers which don't yet support the History API, the Router handles graceful fallback and transparent translation to the fragment version of the URL.

During page load, after your application has finished creating all of its routers, be sure to call Backbone. Define action functions that are triggered when certain URL fragments are matched, and provide a routes hash that pairs routes to actions. Note that you'll want to avoid using a leading slash in your route definitions:. Trailing slashes are treated as part of the URL, and correctly treated as a unique route when accessed.

When the visitor presses the back button, or enters a URL, and a particular route is matched, the name of the action will be fired as an event , so that other objects can listen to the router, and be notified. Router [options] For use with routers as ES classes. If you define a preinitialize method, it will be invoked when the Router is first created and before any instantiation logic is run for the Router.

All options will also be passed to your initialize function, if defined. Each matching capture from the route or regular expression will be passed as an argument to the callback. The name argument will be triggered as a "route:name" event whenever the route is matched. If the callback argument is omitted router[name] will be used instead.

Routes added later may override previously declared routes. If you also wish to call the route function, set the trigger option to true. To update the URL without creating an entry in the browser's history, set the replace option to true. Return false from execute to cancel the current transition. Override it to perform custom parsing or wrapping of your routes, for example, to parse query strings before handing them to your route callback, like so:. History serves as a global router per frame to handle hashchange events or pushState , match the appropriate route, and trigger callbacks.

You shouldn't ever have to create one of these yourself since Backbone. Older browsers that don't support pushState will continue to use hash-based URL fragments, and if a hash URL is visited by a pushState -capable browser, it will be transparently upgraded to the true URL. Note that using real URLs requires your web server to be able to correctly render those pages, so back-end changes are required as well. For full search-engine crawlability, it's best to have the server generate the complete HTML for the page Subsequent calls to Backbone. When called, if a route succeeds with a match for the current URL, Backbone.

If no defined route matches the current URL, it returns false. If the server has already rendered the entire page, and you don't want the initial route to trigger when starting History, pass silent: true. By default, it uses jQuery. With the default implementation, when Backbone. When returning a JSON response, send down the attributes of the model that have been changed by the server, and need to be updated on the client.

When responding to a "read" request from a collection Collection fetch , send down an array of model attribute objects.

Developing Backbone.js Applications

Whenever a model or collection begins a sync with the server, a "request" event is emitted. If the request completes successfully you'll get a "sync" event, and an "error" event if not. The sync function may be overridden globally as Backbone. As an example, a Rails 4 handler responding to an "update" call from Backbone might look like this:.

One more tip for integrating Rails versions prior to 3. Backbone views are almost more convention than they are code — they don't determine anything about your HTML or CSS for you, and can be used with any JavaScript templating library. The general idea is to organize your interface into logical views, backed by models, each of which can be updated independently when the model changes, without having to redraw the page. Instead of digging into a JSON object, looking up an element in the DOM, and updating the HTML by hand, you can bind your view's render function to the model's "change" event — and now everywhere that model data is displayed in the UI, it is always immediately up to date.

You'll want to override the render function, specify your declarative events , and perhaps the tagName , className , or id of the View's root element. Properties like tagName , id , className , el , and events may also be defined as a function, if you want to wait to define them until runtime. If you define a preinitialize method, it will be invoked when the view is first created, before any instantiation logic is run. If the view defines an initialize function, it will be called when the view is first created.

In this fashion, views can be rendered at any time, and inserted into the DOM all at once, in order to get high-performance UI rendering with as few reflows and repaints as possible. If none are set, this. An el reference may also be passed in to the view's constructor. A handy reference instead of re-wrapping the DOM element all the time. If you use this scoped jQuery function, you don't have to use model ids as part of your query to pull out specific elements in a list, and can rely much more on HTML class attributes.

It's equivalent to running: view. In this way, when rendering your view, you have convenient access to instance data. For example, using Underscore templates:. Override this function with your code that renders the view template from model data, and updates this. A good convention is to return this at the end of render to enable chained calls. Backbone is agnostic with respect to your preferred method of HTML templating. Your render function could even munge together an HTML string, or use document. However, we suggest choosing a nice JavaScript templating library.

Because Underscore. Backbone will automatically attach the event listeners at instantiation time, right before invoking initialize. If an events hash is not passed directly, uses this. The callback may be either the name of a method on the view, or a direct function body.

Omitting the selector causes the event to be bound to the view's root element this. By default, delegateEvents is called within the View's constructor for you, so if you have a simple events hash, all of your DOM events will always already be connected, and you will never have to call this function yourself. The events property may also be defined as a function that returns an events hash, to make it easier to programmatically define your events, as well as inherit them from parent views.

Using delegateEvents provides a number of advantages over manually using jQuery to bind events to child elements during render. All attached callbacks are bound to the view before being handed off to jQuery, so when the callbacks are invoked, this continues to refer to the view object. When delegateEvents is run again, perhaps with a different events hash, all callbacks are removed and delegated afresh — useful for views which need to behave differently when in different modes.

A single-event version of delegateEvents is available as delegate. In fact, delegateEvents is simply a multi-event wrapper around delegate. A counterpart to undelegateEvents is available as undelegate. Useful if you want to disable or remove a view from the DOM temporarily.

You can use the return value of Backbone. Useful for embedding Backbone on third-party websites, where you don't want to clobber the existing Backbone. Why use Backbone, not [other framework X]? If your eye hasn't already been caught by the adaptability and elan on display in the above list of examples , we can get more specific: Backbone.

In fact, Backbone. For example References between Models and Views can be handled several ways. Some people like to have direct pointers, where views correspond with models model. Others prefer to have intermediate "controller" objects that orchestrate the creation and organization of views into a hierarchy. Others still prefer the evented approach, and always fire events instead of calling methods directly. All of these styles work well. Batch operations on Models are common, but often best handled differently depending on your server-side setup.

Some folks don't mind making individual Ajax requests. Feel free to define your own events.

Events is designed so that you can mix it in to any JavaScript object or prototype. Since you can use any string as an event, it's often handy to bind and trigger your own custom events: model. Render the UI as you see fit. Backbone is agnostic as to whether you use Underscore templates , Mustache.

Sometimes you'll create a view for each model Both can be appropriate in the same app, depending on the quantity of data involved, and the complexity of the UI. For example, consider a Mailbox model that contains many Message models. One nice pattern for handling this is have a this. If you're looking for something more opinionated, there are a number of Backbone plugins that add sophisticated associations among models, available on the wiki. Backbone doesn't include direct support for nested models and collections or "has many" associations because there are a number of good patterns for modeling structured data on the client side, and Backbone should provide the foundation for implementing any of them.

You may want to…. Loading Bootstrapped Models When your app first loads, it's common to have a set of initial models that you know you're going to need, in order to render the page. Instead of firing an extra AJAX request to fetch them, a nicer pattern is to have their data already bootstrapped into the page. You can then use reset to populate your collections with the initial data.

Extending Backbone Many JavaScript libraries are meant to be insular and self-enclosed, where you interact with them by calling their public API, but never peek inside at the guts. Because it serves as a foundation for your application, you're meant to extend and enhance it in the ways you see fit — the entire source code is annotated to make this easier for you. You'll find that there's very little there apart from core functions, and most of those can be overridden or augmented should you find the need.

If you catch yourself adding methods to Backbone. How does Backbone relate to "traditional" MVC? Different implementations of the Model-View-Controller pattern tend to disagree about the definition of a controller. If it helps any, in Backbone, the View class can also be thought of as a kind of controller, dispatching events that originate from the UI, with the HTML template serving as the true view. Comparing the overall structure of Backbone to a server-side MVC framework like Rails , the pieces line up like so:.

Binding "this" Perhaps the single most common JavaScript "gotcha" is the fact that when you pass a function as a callback, its value for this is lost.

When dealing with events and callbacks in Backbone, you'll often find it useful to rely on listenTo or the optional context argument that many of Underscore and Backbone's methods use to specify the this that will be used when the callback is later invoked. View events are automatically bound to the view's context for you.

Working with Rails Backbone. By default, Rails versions prior to 3. You can disable this wrapping by setting:. Otherwise, override parse to pull model attributes out of the wrapper. You can have your controllers filter attributes directly from params , or you can override toJSON in Backbone to add the extra wrapping Rails expects. The list of examples that follows, while long, is not exhaustive — nor in any way current.

If you've worked on an app that uses Backbone, please add it to the wiki page of Backbone apps.

Better Model Property Validation

If you're wondering where to get started with Backbone in general, take a moment to read through the annotated source. The app uses a LocalStorage adapter to transparently save all of your todos within your browser, instead of sending them to a server. The DocumentCloud workspace is built on Backbone. If you're interested in history — both Underscore.

The new website also makes heavy use of the Backbone Router to control the page for both pushState-capable and legacy browsers. Finally, the team took advantage of Backbone's Event module to create a PubSub API that allows third parties and analytics packages to hook into the heart of the app.

New Rdio was developed from the ground up with a component based framework based on Backbone. Every component on the screen is dynamically loaded and rendered, with data provided by the Rdio API. When changes are pushed, every component can update itself without reloading the page or interrupting the user's music. When data changes are signaled in realtime, Backbone's Events notify the interested components in the data changes. Backbone forms the core of the new, dynamic, realtime Rdio web and desktop applications. Hulu used Backbone. With Backbone as a foundation, the web interface was rewritten from scratch so that all page content can be loaded dynamically with smooth transitions as you navigate.

Backbone makes it easy to move through the app quickly without the reloading of scripts and embedded videos, while also offering models and collections for additional data manipulation support. Quartz sees itself as a digitally native news outlet for the new global economy. Because Quartz believes in the future of open, cross-platform web applications, they selected Backbone and Underscore to fetch, sort, store, and display content from a custom WordPress API.

Although qz. Despite the presence of several other JavaScript libraries, Backbone's non-opinionated design made it effortless to mix-in the Events functionality used for distributing state changes throughout the page. When the decision was made to switch to Backbone, large blocks of custom logic simply disappeared.

Backbone powers the liveblogging platform and commenting system used across all Vox Media properties; Coverage, an internal editorial coordination tool; SB Nation Live , a live event coverage and chat tool; and Vox Cards , Vox. Kinja is Gawker Media's publishing platform designed to create great stories by breaking down the lines between the traditional roles of content creators and consumers. Everyone — editors, readers, marketers — have access to the same tools to engage in passionate discussion and pursue the truth of the story.

Sharing, recommending, and following within the Kinja ecosystem allows for improved information discovery across all the sites. The JavaScript stack includes Underscore. Closure templates are shared between the Play! MetaLab used Backbone. The page should look like the image below. Now lets start creating the first Backbone. The el is the DOM element that the view will attach to. Whenever we create the view the initialize function will get called. Later on we will use these references to retrieve the values the user entered. Before we go any further the initialization process needs to be created.

We have defined our view but never used it.


Edit the file to include the following:. By default Underscore. This gets confusing when working with Rails as it uses the same templating syntax. This changes Underscore. Now lets create our User model for Backbone. The url is the route that should be used for the model. The paramRoot is part of the Rails extension to Backbone. When creating or updating a model Rails typically expects the parameters to be scoped.

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So any parameters for the user sent to Rails will be scoped under the user name. Thats all that is needed to start creating user accounts for the model. Lets now go back to the view and create a user when the submit button is clicked. Add the events , attributes , and createUser properties to the view:. The events property is essentially a hash which binds the given events the key to the the specified function. In this case the event is a submit on the form element. When that event is fired, createUser will be called.

If the button is disabled, just return and do nothing, otherwise continue to create the user. The line new User this. After that user. The function is given two callbacks, error and success. On error the server returns the fields that have errors and simply adds a the. In the CSS you could then highlight the field in red so the user is aware of what the error is. On success the user gets redirect to the root of the application.

Lets update the CSS to highlight a input. Add the following line under the signup-view. The fields with errors should now be highlighted. Go ahead and fill out the form. If it was successful you should see the standard welcome to Rails page. Add the create and destroy actions which will be used for logging in and logging out. The User. Open up the user model for Rails and add it.