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The NCAA opposed Title IX , which mandated women's equal access to athletic facilities and programs, fearing its negative impact on revenue-producing sports. Nonetheless, in it took over control of women's sport when the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women folded, unable to compete with the NCAA's prestige, wealth, and television exposure, and since then has taken major strides to promote gender equity.

Falla, Jack. Mission, Kans. Watterson, John Sayle. College Football: History, Spectacle, Controversy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.


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Primary Book Bands. New Titles. Product Compare 0. Show: 9 25 50 75 This creates tremendous bargaining power for the owners of teams, whereby owners can threaten to relocate teams to other cities unless governments subsidize the construction of new facilities. Outside professional sports, governments are also involved through the intense competition for the right to host major sporting events, primarily the Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup of association football , during which cities often pledge to build new stadiums on order to satisfy the International Olympic Committee IOC or FIFA.

Modern stadiums bring several negative environmental issues with their construction. They require thousands of tons of materials to build, they greatly increase traffic in the area around the stadium, as well as maintaining the stadium. In recent decades, to help take the burden of the massive expense of building and maintaining a stadium, many American and European sports teams have sold the rights to the name of the facility.

This trend, which began in the s, but accelerated greatly in the s, has led to sponsors' names being affixed to both established stadiums and new ones. In some cases, the corporate name replaces with varying degrees of success the name by which the venue has been known for many years. But many of the more recently built stadiums, like the Volkswagen Arena in Wolfsburg , Germany, have never been known by a non-corporate name. The sponsorship phenomenon has since spread worldwide.

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There remain a few municipally owned stadiums, which are often known by a name that is significant to their area for example, Boston 's Fenway Park. In recent years, some government-owned stadiums have also been subject to naming-rights agreements, with some or all of the revenue often going to the team s that play there. One consequence of corporate naming has been an increase in stadium name changes, when the namesake corporation changes its name, or if it is the naming agreement simply expires. Phoenix's Chase Field , for example, was previously known as Bank One Ballpark, but was renamed to reflect the takeover of the latter corporation.

San Francisco's historic Candlestick Park was renamed as 3Com Park for several years, but the name was dropped when the sponsorship agreement expired, and it was another two years before the new name of Monster Cable Products ' Monster Park was applied. Local opposition to the corporate naming of that particular stadium led San Francisco's city council to permanently restore the Candlestick Park name once the Monster contract expired.

More recently, in Ireland, there has been huge opposition to the renaming of Dublin 's historic Lansdowne Road as the Aviva Stadium. Lansdowne was redeveloped as the Aviva, opening in May On the other hand, Los Angeles' Great Western Forum , one of the earliest examples of corporate renaming, retained its name for many years, even after the namesake bank no longer existed, the corporate name being dropped only after the building later changed ownership.

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This practice has typically been less common in countries outside the United States. A notable exception is the Nippon Professional Baseball league of Japan, in which many of the teams are themselves named after their parent corporations. This new trend in corporate naming or renaming is distinguishable from names of some older venues, such as Crosley Field , Wrigley Field , and the first and second Busch Stadiums , in that the parks were named by and for the club's owner, which also happened to be the name of the company owned by those clubowners.

The current Busch Stadium received its name via a modern naming rights agreement.

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Similar rules affect the Imtech Arena and Veltins-Arena. Corporate names are also temporarily replaced during the Olympics.

Although concerts, such as classical music, had been presented in them for decades, beginning in the s stadiums began to be used as live venues for popular music, giving rise to the term " stadium rock ", particularly for forms of hard rock and progressive rock. The tendency developed in the mids as the increased power of amplification and sound systems allowed the use of larger and larger venues.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Place or venue for mostly outdoor sports, concerts, or other events. This article is about the building type. For other uses, see Stadium disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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See also: Category:Stadium disasters. See also: Naming rights and List of sponsored sports venues. Main article: Stadium rock. Architecture portal Sports portal. Young, p. School of Science. Everton Collection. Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 3 April Football Grounds of Britain 3rd ed. London: CollinsWillow.

Download Historical Dictionary Of Basketball Historical Dictionaries Of Sports read id:cthw5ra

Wimpey: The first hundred years. George Wimpey. Frank Summer Citius, Altius, Fortius. Retrieved 24 March Oxford University Press. BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 February The Guardian. Retrieved 2 September BBC News. Villanova Environmental Law Journal.


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Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 20 January Shepherd, ed.