It was first established on November 5, , and construction of the city itself finished in late Andrew Ryan named his city after the goal he set in mind: To create a paradise free from all the people he saw as "Parasites", a place of true rapture. In terms of its philosophical underpinnings, Rapture can best be described as a "gulch", a term derived from Galt's Gulch in the Ayn Rand  novel Atlas Shrugged ,  which is a localized underground economic and social community of free-minded individuals.
It differs from a commune in that it is uniquely freedom-focused and so upholds individual and property rights rather than operating by the rules of a collective community. The original goal of Rapture was to create a capitalist society free of any religious and government interference of any kind, where any citizen could prosper for his or her own gain, without having to fulfill the wants of others. The "world's best and brightest" would be granted freedom of will and choice in Rapture, unrestrained by government, religion and similar established institutions.
Instead of abiding by the traditions and moral systems imposed by those institutions, values such as logic and scientific reason were to guide the inhabitants in their pursuit of achievement. This would-be utopia had its flaws. In Rapture's purely capitalistic society, there were no publicly funded social programs, and everything within the city was privately owned and came with a price. This included the city's food, health care, sanitation and even its oxygen supply.
The police and fire departments were subscription-based private companies such as Poppadopolis Police Department and Fontaine Fire Fighters. There were less restricted norms for businesses and labor, allowing unscrupulous business practices, but with competition and customer's choice balancing the market. This system alienated Rapture's less fortunate citizens, who when hard times came began to resent Ryan's society as cold-hearted and elitist.
Andrew Ryan's hostility and growing paranoia towards "Parasites", and others exploiting Rapture's freedoms to seize wealth and power kicked in motion a set of events that would ultimately lead to Rapture's downfall, and that of Ryan. Rapture began as a dream of Andrew Ryan's long before its construction. Ryan had thought about such a place at least a decade before a viable location was chosen.
He had escaped Belarus just before it became a part of the Soviet Union under the rule of Communism and had worked his way to become an industrial mogul in America. He had come to view 'workers' unions, left-wing collectivists, politicians selling altruism, and organized religion as Parasites ruining man's life on Earth. He explored the idea of a closed-off society, of collecting achievers and those who believed in the empowering of the individual and allowing them to flourish in some remote location uncontaminated by the rest of the world. When the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ended the Second World War, and the USSR was on its own path to nuclear weapons, Ryan foresaw the inevitable destruction of humanity in a war ending in nuclear fire.
Ryan wasted no time in contacting like-minded individuals and marshaling his resources into realizing his vision. His city, Rapture, would be built on the seafloor in the North Atlantic, with a suitable location being picked in between Iceland and Greenland. One of the first involved was Sullivan , a trusted man who was already in Ryan's employment at the time.
With Sullivan's experience in law enforcement, he was made head of Rapture's security. Ryan gathered many construction experts and secured the architects Simon Wales and Daniel Wales to draft the design for many of Rapture's buildings. Many, like Bill McDonagh , shared Ryan's ideals and saw Rapture as a new start where they could rise above the impairments of the parasite-ridden world. Beginning in late , Ryan contracted a series of companies to begin the construction of Rapture at the selected location between Iceland and Greenland. Ryan and his associates secured the manufacturing materials in secret so as to avoid attracting unwanted attention.
These resources were then transported by ships like the Olympian thousands of miles across the North Atlantic to the project site.
Rapture and the Bible
There, the materials were submerged to the ocean floor via a giant State-of-the-Art submersible platform nicknamed "The Sinker. Eventually "The Sinker" was permanently anchored on the sea bottom. The major construction period continued until the end of the s, with smaller projects continuing in and around the city until Rapture's construction was fully completed by From its initial opening to inhabitation in onwards, Rapture flourished.
Newly built with the latest technological marvels from the surface and possessing an active and growing economy supported by wealth, idealism and a new population, Rapture seemed well on its way towards becoming a capitalist utopia in Andrew Ryan's image. Compared to most of the surface world, Rapture could indeed be seen as a utopia, with everyone having the right to freely reap the rewards of their own labor without outside interference.
However, despite its apparent success, cracks soon begun emerge within Rapture's society, specifically, between the social classes. Being a pure individualist capitalist society focused exclusively on the pursuit of profit, Rapture subtly begun to condone things such like greed, elitism and other begun to drive a wedge between the upper and lower classes of society. Being devoid of any social programs, charities and similar to support the less fortunate elements of society due to Andrew Ryan seeing such programs as "parasitic" and forbidding them , the poor of Rapture were left with little to no means of improving their economic standing, trapping them at the bottom of the Rapture's society.
Andrew Ryan's hostility and paranoia of "Parasites", and others exploiting Rapture's freedoms to seize power resulted in him issuing an edict, declaring that all contact with the outside world be severed in order to ensure the Rapture's safety by keeping the city's existence secret from the surface world, now in the midst of the Cold War.
Things seemed to take a turn for the better at some point between and when an incident in Rapture's docks led to the discovery of ADAM  , a chemical substance that, if refined into a special serum called a Plasmid and used alongside an actuating chemical called EVE , would allow the user to alter their genetic code without any limits whatsoever aside from their own imagination, allowing the user to change themselves according to their own design and needs.
This led to a huge upswing in productivity and ADAM soon became an integral part of Rapture's society, ushering in a golden age of productivity and creativity. While it allowed for unrestricted genetic engineering with only one's imagination being the limit, it also turned out to be extremely addictive. After using ADAM, the user would develop an extremely strong addiction to it, forcing them to take more ADAM to stave off the addiction as otherwise the withdrawal symptoms would drive them insane, which served only to worsen the addiction even more and exacerbate the need for ADAM, forcing the user to consume even more ADAM with every subsequent dose becoming bigger than the last, escalating the cycle and bringing with itself an insatiable hunger for more ADAM and a gradual mental degradation and breakdown.
The mass production of ADAM only served to exacerbate Rapture's addiction to the chemical, with it soon becoming vital for Rapture's continued function. Initially admiring Frank Fontaine's success and citing as a prime example of the kind of individual Rapture was aiming to create, Andrew Ryan soon begun to suspect Fontaine of various crimes, including the ongoing smuggling problem. With Fontaine's growing criminal influence over Rapture's less fortunate inhabitants and his monopoly on ADAM production, he was becoming a powerful rival to Ryan, beginning to threaten both the social order of Rapture as well as Ryan's rule.
Things finally came to a head in when Ryan attempted to arrest Fontaine but Fontaine, resisting arrest, was killed in the ensuing shootout between his goons and Ryan's forces. After Fontaine's apparent death, Ryan, with the support of the oligarchic Rapture Central Council assumed control of Fontaine's corporate assets. On December 31, , a massive working-class uprising—the New Year's Eve Riots —was started by Atlas, with Atlas' men carrying out attacks against many upper-class locations, such as the Kashmir Restaurant.
This soon escalated into an all-out civil war between Atlas and Ryan, made worse by the mental degradation caused by ADAM addiction in the city's population. Traditional projectile weapons were used, and were soon joined by Plasmids , first by Atlas' splicers and later employed by Ryan supporters. Of course, the truth of a teaching is not dependent upon who believes it, but whether or not it is in line with all of the Scriptures. Thus, as we have seen, the teaching of the secret rapture is not found in line with what the Bible teaches about the Second Coming of Jesus.
And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself; that where I am, there you may be also. And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as He went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel, who also said, 'Men of Galilee, why do you stand gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will so come in like manner as you saw Him go into heaven.
And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen. For as in the days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and did not know until the flood came and took them all away, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be.
Watch therefore, for you do not know what hour your Lord is coming. Luke NKJV , " 'Two women will be grinding together: the one will be taken and the other left. Two men will be in the field: the one will be taken and the other left. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord. Revelation NKJV , "Then the sky receded as a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved out of its place.
For the great day of His wrath has come, and who is able to stand? And He who sat on him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and makes war. His eyes were like a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns. He had a name written that no one knew except Himself. He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses.
Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.
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Languages Study in More Languages. What is the rapture? The meaning or definition of the rapture is the idea that the coming of Jesus will take place in two separate stages. Browse rapture topics Is the second coming secret? Will Jesus come as a thief in the night? Raptured or left behind? Seven years of tribulation Are the elect raptured before the tribulation?
According to 1 Thessalonians and Matthew the rapture would occur in the Parousia of the Lord where the Greek "Parousia" is used to describe the events:. In the amillennial and postmillennial views there are no distinctions in the timing of the rapture. These views regard the rapture, as it is described in 1 Thessalonians would be identical to the second coming of Jesus as described in Matthew after a symbolic millennium.
In the premillennial view, the rapture would be before a literal millennium. Within premillennialism the pre-tribulation position is the predominant view that distinguishes between the rapture and second coming as two different events. There are also other positions within premillennialism that differ with regard to the timing of the rapture. Though the Catholic Church does not generally regard biblical prophecy in texts such as Daniel and Revelation as strictly future-based when viewed from the standpoint of our present time , in Francisco Ribera , a Catholic Jesuit, taught " futurism "—the idea that most of Revelation is about the imminent future rather than containing certain prophecies that were already fulfilled in the early years of the church.
He also taught that a gathering-of-the-elect event similar to what is now called the rapture would happen 45 days before the end of a 3. The concept of the rapture, in connection with premillennialism , was expressed by the 17th-century American Puritans Increase and Cotton Mather. They held to the idea that believers would be caught up in the air, followed by judgments on earth, and then the millennium.
Samuel Prideaux Tregelles , a prominent English theologian and biblical scholar, wrote a pamphlet in tracing the concept of the rapture through the works of John Darby back to Edward Irving. Although not using the term "rapture", the idea was more fully developed by Edward Irving — In ,  Irving directed his attention to the study of prophecy and eventually accepted the one-man Antichrist idea of James Henthorn Todd , Samuel Roffey Maitland , Robert Bellarmine , and Francisco Ribera , yet he went a step further.
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Irving began to teach the idea of a two-phase return of Christ, the first phase being a secret rapture prior to the rise of the Antichrist. The pre-tribulation position advocates that the rapture will occur before the beginning of a seven-year tribulation period, while the second coming will occur at the end of it.
What Is the Definition of Rapture in Christianity?
Pre-tribulationists often describe the rapture as Jesus coming for the church and the second coming as Jesus coming with the church. Pre-tribulation educators and preachers include Jimmy Swaggart , J. MacArthur , and John Hagee. John Nelson Darby first proposed and popularized the pre-tribulation rapture in Darby and other prominent Brethren were part of the Brethren movement which impacted American Christianity, especially with movements and teachings associated with Christian eschatology and fundamentalism , primarily through their writings.
These conferences, which were initially inclusive of historicist and futurist premillennialism, led to an increasing acceptance of futurist premillennial views and the pre-tribulation rapture especially among Presbyterian, Baptist, and Congregational members. Blackstone 's book Jesus is Coming , published in ,  which sold more than 1. Some pre-tribulation proponents, such as Grant Jeffrey,  maintain that the earliest known extra-Biblical reference to the pre-tribulation rapture is from a 7th-century tract known as the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Ephraem the Syrian.
Different authors have proposed several different versions of the Ephraem text as authentic and there are differing opinions as to whether it supports belief in a pre-tribulation rapture. There exists at least one 18th-century and two 19th-century pre-tribulation references: in an essay published in in Philadelphia by the Baptist Morgan Edwards which articulated the concept of a pre-tribulation rapture,  in the writings of Catholic priest Manuel Lacunza in ,  and by John Nelson Darby in The book appeared first in , 10 years after his death.
In , it was translated into English by the Scottish minister Edward Irving. The rise in belief in the pre-tribulation rapture is often wrongly attributed to a year-old Scottish-Irish girl named Margaret McDonald who was of the first to receive a spiritual baptism under a Pentecostal awakening in Scotland.
In , she supposedly had a vision of the end times which describes a post-tribulation view of the rapture that was first published in It was published again in , but two important passages demonstrating a post-tribulation view were removed to encourage confusion concerning the timing of the rapture. The two removed segments were, "This is the fiery trial which is to try us. It is by being filled with the Spirit that we shall be kept". During the s, belief in the rapture became popular in wider circles, in part because of the books of Hal Lindsey , including The Late Great Planet Earth , which has reportedly sold between 15 million and 35 million copies, and the movie A Thief in the Night , which based its title on the scriptural reference 1 Thessalonians Lindsey proclaimed that the rapture was imminent, based on world conditions at the time.
In , the doctrine of the pre-tribulation rapture was further popularized by Tim LaHaye 's Left Behind series of books, which sold tens of millions of copies  and was made into several movies and four real-time strategy video games. The mid-tribulation position espouses that the rapture will occur at some point in the middle of what is popularly called the tribulation period, or during Daniel's 70th Week.
The tribulation is typically divided into two periods of 3.source site
What is the rapture?
Mid-tribulationists hold that the saints will go through the first period Beginning of Travail , but will be raptured into Heaven before the severe outpouring of God's wrath in the second half of what is popularly called the great tribulation. Mid-tribulationists appeal to Daniel which says the saints will be given over to tribulation for "time, times, and half a time," - interpreted to mean 3. At the halfway point of the tribulation, the Antichrist will commit the "abomination of desolation" by desecrating the Jerusalem temple. Mid-tribulationist teachers include Harold Ockenga , James O.
Buswell a reformed, Calvinistic Presbyterian , and Norman Harrison. The prewrath rapture view also places the rapture at some point during the tribulation period before the second coming. This view holds that the tribulation of the church begins toward the latter part of a seven-year period, being Daniel's 70th week, when the Antichrist is revealed in the temple. This latter half of a seven-year period [i. References from Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21 are used as evidence that this tribulation will be cut short by the coming of Christ to deliver the righteous by means of the rapture, which will occur after specific events in Revelation, in particular after the sixth seal is opened and the sun is darkened and the moon is turned to blood.
After the rapture will come God's seventh-seal wrath of trumpets and bowls a. The Day of the Lord's wrath against the ungodly will follow for the remainder of seven years. The partial, conditional or selective rapture theory holds that all obedient Christians will be raptured before the great tribulation depending on ones personal fellowship or closeness between she or he and God, which is not to be confused with the relationship between the same and God which is believer, regardless of fellowship. Other proponents of this theory hold that only those who are faithful in their relationship with God having true fellowship with Him will be raptured, and the rest resurrected during the great tribulation, between the 5th and 6th seals of Revelation, having lost their lives during.
Lang , Robert Chapman , G. Pember , Robert Govett , D. Panton , Watchman Nee , Ira E. David, J. Campbell Morgan , Otto Stockmayer and Rev. Chip White, Jr. In the post-tribulation premillennial position, the rapture would be identical to the second coming of Jesus or as a meeting in the air with Jesus that immediately precedes his return to the Earth before a literal millennium. The post-tribulation position places the rapture at the end of the tribulation period. Post-tribulation writers define the tribulation period in a generic sense as the entire present age, or in a specific sense of a period of time preceding the second coming of Christ.
Post-tribulationists perceive the rapture as occurring simultaneously with the second coming of Christ. Upon Jesus' return, believers will meet him in the air and will then accompany him in his return to the Earth. In the Epistles of Paul , most notably in 1 Thessalonians "the dead in Christ shall rise first" and 1 Corinthians , a trumpet is described as blowing at the end of the tribulation to herald the return of Christ; Revelation further supports this view.
Moreover, after chapters 6—19, and after when Satan is bound, Revelation says, "and they lived, and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection.
Authors and teachers who support the post-tribulational view include Pat Robertson , Walter R. Martin , John Piper , George E. Ladd ,  Robert H. Gundry ,  and Douglas Moo. In the postmillennialist view the millennium is seen as an indefinitely long time thus precluding literal interpretation of a thousand-year period. According to Loraine Boettner "the world will be Christianized, and the return of Christ will occur at the close of a long period of righteousness and peace, commonly called the millennium.
According to them the great tribulation was already fulfilled in the Jewish-Roman War of 66—73 AD that involved the destruction of Jerusalem. Amillennialists view the millennial rule of Christ as the current, but indefinite period that began with the foundation of the church and that will end with the Second Coming—a period where Christ already reigns with his saints through the Eucharist and his church. They view the life of the church as Christ's kingdom already established inaugurated on the day of the Pentecost described in the first chapter of Acts , but not to be made complete until his second coming.
This framework precludes a literal interpretation of the thousand-year period mentioned in chapter twenty of Revelation, viewing the number "thousand" as numerologically symbolic and pertaining to the current age of the church. Amillennialists generally do not use "rapture" as a theological term, but they do view a similar event coinciding with the second coming—primarily as a mystical gathering with Christ.
To amillennialists the final days already began on the day of the Pentecost, but that the great tribulation will occur during the final phase or conclusion of the millennium, with Christ then returning as the alpha and omega at the end of time. Unlike premillennialists who predict the millennium as a literal thousand-year reign by Christ after his return, amillennialists emphasize the continuity and permanency of his reign throughout all periods of the New Covenant, past, present and future.
They do not regard mentions of Jerusalem in the chapter twenty-one of Revelation as pertaining to the present geographical city, but to a future new Jerusalem or "new heaven and new earth", for which the church through the twelve apostles representing of the twelve tribes of Israel currently lays the foundation in the messianic kingdom already present.
Unlike certain premillennial dispensationalists, they do not view the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem as either necessary or legitimate, because the practice of animal sacrifices has now been fulfilled in the life of the church through Christ's ultimate sacrifice on the cross. Authors who have expressed support for the amillenialist view include St. Since the origin of the concept, many believers in the rapture have made predictions regarding the date of the event. The primary Biblical reference cited against this position is Matthew , where Jesus is quoted as saying about his Parousia; "But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only.
But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming Parousia of the Son of man be. Any individual or religious group that has dogmatically predicted the day of the rapture, a practise referred to as "date setting", has been thoroughly embarrassed and discredited, as the predicted date of fulfillment has invariably come and gone without event. Conversely, many of those who believe that the precise date of the rapture cannot be known, do affirm that the specific time frame that immediately precedes the rapture event can be known.